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Convulsions

It is defined as a repeated uncontrollable shaking of body due to rapid and repeated contraction and relaxation of muscles. This occurs due to excessive neural activity of brain. Sometimes the term 'Convulsions' is used as a synonym of 'Seizures'.
They usually last for 30 seconds to 2 minutes. In some patients, time period can be changed.

Cause:
1.Head injury.
2.Alcohol use
3.Intoxication and withdrawal of drugs or narcotics.
4.Brain tumor.
5.Fever especially in young children.
6.Meningitis.
7.Low blood sugar.
8.Chronic blood pressure.
9.Renal failure.
10.Toxaemia of pregnancy.
11.Poisoning.

Signs and symptoms:
There are involuntary changes in body movement or function, sensation, awareness, or behavior.
1.Spasmodic contractions of muscles with twitching and jerking.
2.Blackout followed by state of confusion,
3.Dribbling of saliva or frothing from mouth.
4.Eye movements.
5.Abnormal breathing pattern.
6.Clenching of teeth.
7.Passage of urine or stools.
8.Unusual behavior like anger, laughter, picking of clothes etc.

Types of seizures:
1.Tonic clonic seizures:
In this, there is retrograde amnesia. Patient becomes rigid, unconscious, falling down heavily if standing. Incontinence of urine, biting of tongue and respiration is arrested followed by central cyanosis. After rigidity, clonic jerks start followed by flaccid state of deep coma. Patient regains its consciousness in few minutes and full memory is regained in few days.

2.Complex Partial seizures:
There is altered consciousness without collapsing of patient. There is blackout in which patient is stop doing his work and stares blankly, rhythmic smaking movement of lips, and displaying automatisms like picking of clothes. Before attack patient shows alteration of mood, behavior, perception and hallucination of sound, smell, taste, viscera etc. After attack, patient returns to its consciousness in few minutes in confused and drowsy state.

3.Absence Seizures:
A type of minor seizures resembles complex partial seizures. A generalized absence epilepsy of childhood known as 'petit mal'.

4.Partial motor seizures:
This arises from motor cortex affecting the contralateral face, arm ant trunk or leg. They may be localized or spread gradually to other parts of body, called as jacksonian epilepsy.

5.Partial sensory seizures:
This arises from sensory cortex causing abnormal electric sensations on contralateral face and limbs.

6.Versive seizures:
There is forced deviation of the eyes and later on turned into generalized tonic clonic seizures.

7.Partial seizures:
In this visual hallucinations are present.

Diagnosis:
1.Blood test.
2.Lumbar puncture: to detect underlying cause like meningitis, drug overdose.
3.CT Scan, MRI- to detect any pathology present.
4.EEG- to detect electrical activity of brain.

Management:
1.Protect patient from injury during attack.
2.Loosen tight clothing especially from neck.
3.During vomiting, turn patient to its side in order to prevent aspiration of fluid into lungs.
4.Call for medical help in cases of emergency.
5.Homoeopathy- Homoeopathy can be proclaimed to be definitely effective in treating cases of convulsions. Homoeopathy treats the patient as a whole; disease will be definitely cured automatically and permanently.

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