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Injury

It is defined as a damage or harm done to or suffered by a person in the structure or function/s of the affected part.
It is caused by an outside agent or force, which may be physical or chemical, and either by accident or intentionally. A severe and life-threatening injury is referred to as a physical trauma.
Injuries can range from damage so minor as to be hardly noticed, to that which is so severe that it causes death or prolonged disability.

Types of injury-

  • Bruise is a hemorrhage under the skin caused by contusion.
  • Wound: cuts and grazes are injuries to or through the skin that cause bleeding (i.e., a laceration).
  • Burns are injuries caused by excess heat, chemical exposure, or sometimes cold (frostbite).
  • Fractures are injuries to bones.
  • Joint dislocation is a displacement of a bone from its normal joint, such as a dislocated shoulder or finger.
  • Concussion is mild traumatic brain injury caused by a blow, without any penetration into the skull or brain.
  • Sprain is an injury which occurs to ligaments caused by a sudden over stretching; a strain injures muscles.
  • Shock is a serious medical condition where the tissues cannot obtain sufficient oxygen and nutrients.
  • Amputation is the removal of a body extremity by trauma or surgery.
  • Serious bodily injury is any injury or injuries to the body that substantially risks death of the victim.
Cause-
Injury to the body can result from accidents, acts of violence, or surgery. This third category, inflicted by the medical profession itself, is often forgotten, but it does of course cause damage to body tissue - although hopefully the overall result of surgery will be of benefit to the patient.

Response of body-
Our bodies can adapt extremely quickly to injury by activating a whole array of responses to limit damage. These occur not only at the specific site of the injury, but also involve most of the general systems in the body, including the heart and circulation, the endocrine, nervous and immune systems, and complex changes often called the 'defense response' or 'acute phase response'. All of these changes are directed towards helping the body to cope with damage, to keep functioning normally, and to start the processes of repair and recovery. However, sometimes, when injuries are severe, it is the body's own defense responses which can actually cause problems and even death, because they are inappropriate or excessive.

The 'fight or flight' response (which is seen even in very primitive organisms) means that the brain automatically activates our sympathetic nervous system to increase heart rate and blood pressure, to direct blood to important regions (the brain, the heart, and in this case the site of injury), and to stimulate release of specific hormones. These hormones tend to stimulate body functions which may be needed to fight off infection, support repair of injuries, and help the heart and other organs cope with the threat to survival.

Symptoms-
The symptoms in injuries are totally depending upon the site of injury. But the foremost symptom is pain.
Along with this, severity of injury is also responsible for it.
For example- severe loss of blood (haemorrage) can actually cause a reduction in blood pressure and may result in 'shock'. Severe pain or injury can also result in shock and loss of consciousness, and toxins released from bacteria in the gut after severe injury can result in a condition similar to severe infection. If this progressive deterioration goes unchecked, it can lead to a fatal condition known as multiple organ failure, where major organs such as the liver, kidney, heart, and lungs are unable to function.

Treatment-
Treatment depends upon the severity of the injury. In cases of physical trauma, immediate hospitalization is required.
Homoeopathy- this system of medicine also plays a major role in cases of injury. There are several medicines which help in the process of healing. Homoeopathy also improves the nervous system of the patient where damaged It can also reduce anxiety in an injured patient before any surgery.

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