It is defined as a damage or harm done to or
suffered by a person in the structure or function/s of the affected
It is caused by an outside agent or force, which may be physical or
chemical, and either by accident or intentionally. A severe and
life-threatening injury is referred to as a physical trauma.
Injuries can range from damage so minor as to be hardly noticed, to
that which is so severe that it causes death or prolonged disability.
Types of injury-
- Bruise is a hemorrhage under the skin caused by contusion.
- Wound: cuts and grazes are injuries to or through the skin
that cause bleeding (i.e., a laceration).
- Burns are injuries caused by excess heat, chemical
exposure, or sometimes cold (frostbite).
- Fractures are injuries to bones.
- Joint dislocation is a displacement of a bone from its
normal joint, such as a dislocated shoulder or finger.
- Concussion is mild traumatic brain injury caused by a blow,
without any penetration into the skull or brain.
- Sprain is an injury which occurs to ligaments caused by a
sudden over stretching; a strain injures muscles.
- Shock is a serious medical condition where the tissues
cannot obtain sufficient oxygen and nutrients.
- Amputation is the removal of a body extremity by trauma or
- Serious bodily injury is any injury or injuries to the body
that substantially risks death of the victim.
Injury to the body can result from accidents, acts of violence, or
surgery. This third category, inflicted by the medical profession
itself, is often forgotten, but it does of course cause damage to body
tissue - although hopefully the overall result of surgery will be of
benefit to the patient.
Response of body-
Our bodies can adapt extremely quickly to injury by activating a whole
array of responses to limit damage. These occur not only at the
specific site of the injury, but also involve most of the general
systems in the body, including the heart and circulation, the
endocrine, nervous and immune systems, and complex changes often called
the 'defense response' or 'acute phase response'. All of these changes
are directed towards helping the body to cope with damage, to keep
functioning normally, and to start the processes of repair and
recovery. However, sometimes, when injuries are severe, it is the
body's own defense responses which can actually cause problems and even
death, because they are inappropriate or excessive.
The 'fight or flight' response (which is seen even in very primitive
organisms) means that the brain automatically activates our sympathetic
nervous system to increase heart rate and blood pressure, to direct
blood to important regions (the brain, the heart, and in this case the
site of injury), and to stimulate release of specific hormones. These
hormones tend to stimulate body functions which may be needed to fight
off infection, support repair of injuries, and help the heart and other
organs cope with the threat to survival.
The symptoms in injuries are totally depending upon the site of injury.
But the foremost symptom is pain.
Along with this, severity of injury is also responsible for it.
For example- severe loss of blood (haemorrage) can actually cause a
reduction in blood pressure and may result in 'shock'. Severe pain or
injury can also result in shock and loss of consciousness, and toxins
released from bacteria in the gut after severe injury can result in a
condition similar to severe infection. If this progressive
deterioration goes unchecked, it can lead to a fatal condition known as
multiple organ failure, where major organs such as the liver, kidney,
heart, and lungs are unable to function.
Treatment depends upon the severity of the injury. In cases of
physical trauma, immediate hospitalization is required.
Homoeopathy- this system of medicine also plays a major role in cases
of injury. There are several medicines which help in the
process of healing. Homoeopathy also improves the nervous system of the patient where
damaged It can also reduce anxiety in an
injured patient before any surgery.
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