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Gums

The gingiva (gum) is the protective type of skin that is closely adapted to the necks of the teeth and covers the bone holding the roots of the teeth. There is a shallow ditch like space that separates the margin of the normal gingiva from the tooth surface. This space is 2mm in depth and is called gingival sulcus. It is one of the places that a dentist will carefully examine to detect the presence of gum disease.  Healthy gingiva is usually coral pink, but may contain physiologic pigmentation. In general, darker persons have darker gingiva; but in some individuals there can be excess of pigments that give the gingiva a brownish tinge.

Characteristics of healthy gingiva
1.Colour
Healthy gingiva usually has a colour that has been described as "coral pink." Other colours like red, white, and blue can signify inflammation (gingivitis) or pathology. Although the text book colour of gingiva is "coral pink", normal racial pigmentation makes the gingiva appear darker. Because the colour of gingiva varies due to racial pigmentation, uniformity of colour is more important than the underlying colour itself.
2.Contour
Healthy gingiva has a smooth arcuate or scalloped appearance around each tooth. Healthy gingiva fills and fits each interdental space, unlike the swollen gingiva papilla seen in gingivitis or the empty interdental embrasure seen in periodontal disease. Healthy gums hold tight to each tooth in that the gingival surface narrows to "knife-edge" thin at the free gingival margin. On the other hand, inflamed gums have a "puffy" or "rolled" margin.
3.Texture
Healthy gingiva has a firm texture that is resistant to movement, and the surface texture often exhibits surface stippling(Orange peel appearance). Unhealthy gingiva, on the other hand, is often swollen and mushy.
4.Reaction to disturbance
Healthy gums usually have no reaction to normal disturbance such as brushing or periodontal probing. Unhealthy gums on the other hand will show bleeding on probing (BOP) and/or purulent exudate (pus

CAUSES OF GUM DISEASE.
Gum disease, is an infection of the gums caused by bacteria. These bacteria produce toxins that irritate the gingiva, and also directly infiltrate into the gingiva causing them to become inflamed and bleed easily. The inflammation of the gingiva is known as gingivitis. If the irritation persists, the gingiva separates from the tooth and form pockets. Plaque then forms within these pockets and eventually destroys the gingiva and the underlying bone. The teeth may then become loose and fall out or need to be removed. There are other factors that may contribute to gum diseases. They are as follows:-
1.Plaque traps-Decayed teeth, broken or ill fitting dentures, crowded or crooked teeth, improper filled teeth may provide secure areas for plaque to form, from where it cannot be removed by routine oral hygiene methods.
2.Systemic factors-Individuals with diseases such as Diabetes, leukemia or people who are on certain medications may be particularly prone to gum diseases, because their resistance to this disease has been lowered and/or that their gums become increasingly sensitive to any local irritation.
The following raise your risk for developing gingivitis:
1.General illness 
2.Poor dental hygiene 
3.Pregnancy (hormonal changes increase the sensitivity of the gums) 
4.Uncontrolled diabetes 

Symptoms of Gingivitis:
1.Bleeding gums (blood on toothbrush even with gentle brushing of the teeth) 
2.Bright red or red-purple appearance to gums 
3.Gums that are tender when touched, but otherwise painless 
4.Mouth sores 
5.Swollen gums 
6.Shiny appearance to gums

Treatment:
If long standing inflammation is the cause of bleeding then removal of the source of bacteria will result in improvement of the situation. If the source is mild to moderate in collection. Proper maintenance of the teeth by the patient is more than sufficient. If the source is moderate to severe in collection then professional help is required. Serious systemic problems might have to be treated to correct bleeding from these diseases. Repair of misaligned teeth or replacement of dental and orthodontic appliances may be recommended. Any other related illnesses or conditions should be treated.

Homoeopathy
Homoeopathy will help in treating these cases along with hygiene maintenance. The medicines is selected on the basis of the symptoms presented by the patient and causative factors with the help of miasmatic analysis.

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