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Dandruff

DANDRUFF
It is also known as seborrhea. It is defined as the excessive shedding of dead skin cells. It occurs in parts of the body with high oil (sebum) production..  Body areas that are commonly affected include the scalp (most common site), ears, face, chest, and folds of skin, such as the underarms etc.

Causes:
A small amount of flaking is normal and in fact quite common. Some people, however, experience an unusually large amount of flaking due to rapid turnover of cells. For people with dandruff, skin cells may mature and be shed in 2-7 days, as opposed to around a month in people without dandruff. The result is that dead skin cells are shed in large, oily clumps, which appear as white or grayish patches.
1.Most common cause for it is fungus named Malassezia furfur. This fungus metabolizes triglycerides present in sebum by the expression of lipase, resulting in a lipid byproduct oleic acid (OA). Penetration by oleic acid of the top layer of the epidermis, the stratum corneum, results in an inflammatory response in susceptible persons, which disturbs homeostasis and results in erratic cleavage of stratum corneum cells.
2.Some people who have weakened immune systems, such as those on chemotherapy or those with HIV disease or certain neurological disorders, may have very severe seborrhea.

Scalp Seborrhea Manifestation:
1.Hair loss but not permanent.
2.Itching is present, when proper hygiene is not maintained.
3.Thick, dry patchy flakes present.
4.Affected part is seems to be dry but appeared reddish after application of moisturizer.

Seborrheic Dermatitis Manifestation:
1.It is frequently occurs around the folds of the nose and the eyebrow areas.
2.Reddish-brown, dry-looking, or thick, greasy scales on the eyebrows, sides of the nose, and behind the ears.
3.Redness and itching is often associated.

Differential Diagnosis:
Scalp psoriasis and seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp can be difficult to differentiate. Both are common conditions that affect the scalp. In addition, they share similar symptoms, such as itchy, red, scaly skin.
Most often, the scales of psoriasis are thicker and somewhat drier in appearance than are the scales of seborrheic dermatitis. In addition, psoriasis usually affects more than one area of the body. So if you have scalp psoriasis, you may also have mild psoriasis on your elbows, knees, buttocks or fingers.
There is no single test to confirm a diagnosis of psoriasis or seborrheic dermatitis. A diagnosis is usually made with a visual examination of the affected skin.

Treatment:
The most effective way to control dandruff is to keep the affected area clean; a proper hygiene must be maintained. All shampoos and other product which are given to control dandruff will give just a temporary relief but with the help of homoeopathic medicines the tendency and symptoms both can be treated without any further adverse effects.

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